Plenty of couples is unable to conceive, even after indulging in unprotected sex for more than a year. It might take several tests to determine the cause of infertility wherein which a cause is never identified. However, in at most 20% of the cases, male infertility is the cause of conception failure.
But how can male infertility be diagnosed? It normally includes the following fertility test for men:
1. General physical examination: This is one of the most basic fertility testing procedures. Your doctor will examine your genitals for any abnormalities or lumps. You doctor may also question you about you sexual habits as well as your sexual development during puberty.
2. Medical history: Your doctor may ask your questions about any inherited conditions, chronic health problems, illnesses, injuries or surgeries that have a high probability of affecting the fertility.
3. Semen analysis: A sample of your sperm will be collected and sent to the laboratory for the infertility test. The tests will look out for the number of sperm present, morphology and motility of the sperm. It will also look out for any possible infections or bacterial growth.
4. Scrotal ultrasound: High – frequency sound waves will be used to detect if there are any abnormalities in your scrotum. Normally this test looks out for varicocele or problems in the testicles or supporting structures.
5. Hormone testing: Hormones produces in the pituitary gland, hypothalamus and testicles play an important role in sexual development and sperm production. Abnormalities will also be checked in other hormonal or organ systems to see if they cause infertility. A blood test will also be procured to measure the level of testosterone and other hormones in the body to see if they are the cause of infertility.
6. Post-ejaculation Urinalysis: This test is used to detect if there is sperm in your urine. If it tests positive, it indicates that your sperms are travelling towards the back into the bladder instead of out the penis.
7. Genetic tests: If your sperm concentration is extremely low, and there is no primary cause found, a genetic test will be recommended to figure out the cause. Normally a blood test will indicate if there are any changes in the Y chromosome, which is normally a sign of genetic abnormality. Genetic tests are then conducted to diagnose several congenital or inherited syndromes.
8. Trans – rectal ultrasound: A small and well-lubricated wand are inserted into the rectum to observe it. It allows your doctor to check your prostate and look for any possibility of blockages in your ejaculatory ducts and seminal vesicles
9. Testicular biopsy: This test is rarely recommended unless really required. A small sample of the testicle tissues it taken and observed for any abnormalities or disorders.