12 months or more of unprotected sex without pregnancy is considered a determinant of infertility. Infertility is of two types namely primary or secondary. The first type indicates firsthand infertility without any episode of previous pregnancy. Whereas the second involves problems faced by a couple who have conceived and given birth earlier. A common word used in these contexts is sterility which means the inability to produce children. Childless couples of which the woman is aged below 43, are usually considered infertile.
The American Society for Reproductive Medicine recommends that a couple seeks medical help if the female partner is over 35 years old and if they are experiencing trouble conceiving. However, younger couples often choose to wait for their bodies to take the natural course rather than opt for medical intervention. It is advised to seek doctoral help if you are unable to get pregnant in case of some medical history, such as polycystic ovary, previous tubal pregnancy, irregular menstrual cycles and the like.
Infertility is a problem that affects many people and cuts across all societies. That is why, infertility treatment centres are important than ever now. Such centres not only provide medical treatment, but also offer sexual advice so that couples can conceive with the least interference and the best emotional health. Ovulation in women occur on the 14th day of a 28-day long period cycle, or the 16th day of a 30-day span. Generally, doctors suggest intercourse on the day of ovulation or on the day before since the egg survives only for 12-24 hours, while the sperm stays for 2-5 days.
Causes of infertility:
- Anovulation – This is a condition caused due to lack of ovulation. Some women do not develop and release a mature egg every month.
- Oligoovulation – This is a condition characterized by irregular ovulation. Some women ovulate several times a year. They often need medication to induce regular egg development and ovulation. Polycystic ovarian syndrome can cause both anovulation and oligoovulation.
- Tubal factor infertility – This is caused by pelvic infection or scar tissue formation after pelvic surgery. This includes one blocked fallopian tube, or no blockage but tubal scarring.
- Sperm issues – Sperm count or motility can contribute to fertility issues. Semen analysis is a good way to identify sperm fertility.
Infertility treatment centres in India are focusing on advising patients to adopt lifestyle changes, as well as on cutting edge medical facilities. It is possible to treat infertility with minimum intervention, and with sexual advice that aids both physical and psychological health of couples.